Managers with different functions, roles and skills代寫
Managers with different functions, roles and skills
Today, the competition in the business world is fierce. The competition among companies is not about product quality and functions any more. It is also about human resource capital. The organisations which have more skilled employees and managers might gain success and development more easily than the organisations with less skilled employees and managers. Managers are guiding and directing employees to do various works. Managers can influence employees in many ways. Managers can improve employee performance, effectiveness and efficiency through various management skills. They are one of the most important components of modern organisations (Armstrong, 2006).
There are different kinds of managers inside organisations. They are making different functions and playing different roles. For these managers, different skills are needed to support their management works. This essay will present that managers are a group of important human resources of companies and they have different functions, roles and skills.
Direct answer to the question
Three persons (Charles, Sarah and Tony) were introduced and the author is asked whether they are managers. The answer to this question is positive. All of them are managers to organisations. However, they are different. Following, the author will use literature to expand the answer.
Literature of manager and applications
Managers with different functions, roles and skills代寫
According to DuBrin (2009), management is a process of planning, organising, leading and controlling the resources of an organisation to meet the objectives in an effective and efficient way. Managers are the ones who make these things done. They are responsible to the team, group and organisational objectives. Managers work with people and coordinate the work activities inside organisations to achieve organisational objectives.
From the definition of management and managers, it is found that there are several functions made by managers. Fayol (1949) has identified several functions of managers, including planning, organising, leading and controlling. Planning means managers predict the market and organisation resources and plan the future activities and objectives. Organising means managers use the resources and employees of organisations. Leading means managers motivate and guide the employees to improve performance. Controlling means managers do risk management and change the objectives and plans according to the external environment changes. Through applying these functions on the activities done by Charles, Sarah and Tony, it is found that all of these people have made the four functions every day. Charles, Sarah and Tony all do planning, organising, leading and controlling every day. However, critically speaking, these people have focused on different activities. For instance, as a Chief Executive Office of a large company, Charles has to focus on planning and leading. As a client service manager, Sarah has to focus on organising and controlling. As a team leader in the packing and distribution for a small company, Tony has to focus on organising and controlling as well.
Besides functions, managers can be divided into three types according to their roles in organisations. There are three major roles played by managers, including interpersonal, informational, and decisional (Mintzberg, 2009). The interpersonal role requires managers to handle the interactions and person relations inside organisations. The informational role requires managers to collect information and deliver information to the needed people. The decisional role requires managers to make important decisions, such as the business objective and business strategies. These three roles are influencing each other. For instance, decisional role needs the support of informational role. Top managers can make rational decisions only when they get enough supported information about both internal and external environment. Through applying this theory to the management activities done by Charles, Sarah and Tony, differences are found again. Charles is playing the decisional role. He has to make many strategic decisions about the company’s development directions. Marketing managers, human resource managers, operations managers and many other departments’ managers have to report to Charles because he takes charge of the development direction of the whole organisation. He has to make some decisions and guide these managers to react to the requirements of the company’s shareholders and owners. Sarah is taking charge of client service, so she must understand the needs of clients so that the charity can meet the needs of clients more effectively. From the role of manager, Sarah is playing the informational role. Besides this role, Sarah has to handle the relationship between clients and the charity. She also plays the role of interpersonal. In terms of Tony, he has to lead the team members to meet the goal set by the company, and he also has to deliver information of the packing and distribution to the top managers. From this perspective, Tony is playing the interpersonal role. To sum up, every manager may play all of the three roles suggested by Mintzberg (2009), but they have some major roles to play. The major role of every manager is different.
In terms of management skills, Katz (1974) identifies three basic skills that a manager must have, including conceptual, technical and interpersonal skills. All of these skills are needed if a manager wants to become an effective one. However, when managers are at different managerial level, the importance of these skills to managers is different. At the top strategic level, conceptual skills are the most important skill among the three ones. At the low operational level, technical skills are the most important skill among the three. In terms of the management level, it is found that Charles is at the high strategic level because he takes charge of the strategic management activities of the whole organisation. Sarah is the middle manager of this large charity organisation because she supports the management of both top and low level of managers. Tony is at the low operational level because he handles the operational activities of the manufacturing company – packing and distribution. To link the management level and the theory of skills of management, it is found that Charles should have conceptual skills, Sarah should have interpersonal skills, and Tony should have technical skills.
Conceptual skills are the skills to see and analyse the organisation as a whole and from a comprehensive perspective and understand the complex relationships inside and outside organisations (Gupta, 2009). Charles is the Chief Executive Officer of a huge company. He does need to see the organisation as a whole and explore the relationship with employees, customers, partners, and suppliers. Therefore, conceptual skill is extremely important to Charles. Interpersonal skills are the skills of