澳洲論文代寫：Electric publishing and collaborative writing代寫
Electric publishing and collaborative writing
- Electric publishing
- Australia：Electric publishing and collaborative writing代寫
The copyright owners of digital journal are massive, the approach that one publisher gets the author's permission is unrealistic, for it will result in the phenomenon that authorization and oversight authority is unreal. Piracy problems faced by network original literature include the following: Network unauthorized use others' works; unauthorized forwarding between sites and site and misappropriation; search engines provide free links without the permission of website or in the form of "Post Bar" to reproduce original network works (Dey 2013, P. 1). When e-book provider signed agreements with publishers on e-book content preloaded or downloaded, they may encounter the following problems on copyright issues: When the digital rights concept has not yet appeared, the digital rights of early works of publishers are blur, they don’t know the digital copyright belongs to the author or the publishers, if publishers ultra vires to sign the agreement, resulting in the fact that the infringement (Rosenblatt 2001, P. 12); after the concept of digital copyright emerged, the author did not grant publishers digital rights, e-book provider signed an agreement with the publisher for the convenience, the digital copyright of the author is infringed.
In order to meet user needs, the library will have to purchase e-books. Moreover, in the initial stage, the library needs to purchase e-book reader for readers to use, but e-book readers gradually become popular consumer product, the library will alleviate pressure to purchase readers. Library has to make the process of borrowing and returning become feasible. Library allows readers to excerpt part of the contents from the e-book for the article references, but to limit the whole book excerpt.
In traditional publishing, as to an unknown author, the chance that his works were published was less than one ten thousandth. Owing to the Internet, the fate of the author is reversed, it opens a new history. Self-publishing will shake the centrality of traditional publishing houses. Here, everyone can publish his own thought, everyone can freely publish his work instantly, without going through the step of traditional publishing houses. Publishing seems to be no longer the strictly controlled ideology area, no longer need to apply Issues or ISBN, people can publish work online (Zhao 2001, P. 106). They no longer follow the traditional publishing methods to read the work, to accept or choose books to read newspapers and news, but in the real-time web publishing, and instantly see the latest works. Publishing concept was completely changed and broken, more knowledge sharing, has also changed the concept of intellectual property protection.
As the network resources used to be free, the users are reluctant to pay for the resources to some extent. Many users buy the e-book reader, but choose to download the free resources on the web. It makes digital publishing difficult to gain profit, thereby constraining the development of the industry.
The main problem currently faced by the digital content service providers is the lack of uniform technical standards, resulting in the high cost. Different platforms using different criteria, increased user’s costs and resulted in a waste of resources.
Electric publishing brought two key changes, one is book publishing and distribution methods, from the traditional author - Press - printer - Publisher - Retailers - Readers way into the author (Press) - Internet platform (network booksellers) – Readers, the other is that it changes the way of reading, from the bookstore (Library) - books way into the Internet platform (network booksellers) - a handheld reader mode.
The supply chain issues between copyright protection and authors, publishers, distributors and readers, e-book is the most crucial and most need to be addressed (Kahin 2000, P. 83). As to publishers, they have to make sure readers who purchased the book should be read only on the specified machine, control the e-books and generally do not provide permission to print in order to protect copyright and guarantee the income. From the production of paper books to make e-books, they’d better have a handy tool, because in a very long period of time, paper books and e-books are coexisting. How many of the books sold should count on and how many bookstores sell books should be audited. Publishers should be able to easily publish and distribute revised version books. They should support multi-level distribution methods, bookstores or distributors should be able to pass e-books to subordinate bookstores.
In order to sell e-books, distributors and bookstores have to get permission from publishers and permission should also be able to resell to subordinate bookstores. Distributors and bookstores should also be able to retreat e-books back to publishers (Tapscott 1998, P. 15).
Readers need to be able to read books published by different publishers, also need to be able to read in a variety of popular reading devices, that is, the reader would like to buy books, not only on his existing equipment that he can read, but also should be able to read in new equipments. E-books must be easy to use otherwise the reader will still buy paper books. Copyright control mechanisms should be substantially transparent to the user and the process of buying and downloading books should be simple (Samuelson 1992, P. 237). Readers can send the book to someone else, or lent to someone else, the person who borrow the book can return it. Electronic documents are damaged easier than paper books, in order to protect the interests of readers, e-books should be able to back up. Private information (hardware related information) of readers should also confidential.
- Collaborative writing
If I were in charge of the publication process, I would seek a balance between personal creative and collaborative writing. I prefer core professionals to determine the general idea or frame firstly, then mobilize many creators to fill rich flesh, eventually form a clear context, rich content e-book to be published. In the process of collaborative writing, we have to keep in touch with each other in order to keep informed of the progress (Dey 2013, P. 2). Once the group member’s fail to match other’s content, we can take measures to find out the reason and reedit it at the very beginning. When the work is to be finished, we then discuss the structure and the core members make the decision. At last, it is the re-edited work to guarantee that the whole work is consistent and a single voice. This job is assigned to the one who masters proficient writing skills. This is actually a combination of the advantages of self-organization and hetero-organization.
Concerning publishing roles, the leader works as publisher. The leader is the one who handles quality control of the article. From the content of the work to editing, he has to consider every detail. All the group members are the authors including the leader. Of course, we can’t match the roles with traditional publishing one by one, for the roles here are overlapping. The e-publishing supply chain is the whole group, which is a kind of self-publishing. They distribute their works by themselves.
Collaborative writing also has its own limitations and shortcomings. Firstly, collaborative writing has restrictions in the theme (Ede 1990, P. 102). Not all subjects are suitable for collaborative writing. Generally speaking, reference books and translated books are more appropriate for collaborative writing. And personalized content such as literature is less effective collaborative writing for it is not easy to control the quality of the work. For instance, most of the time, writing novels is only appropriate for individuals. So it is important to make sure whether the subject is suitable for collaborative writing. If it not, it is better to arrange one person to create without constrains, others just help to edit and distribute it.
Australia：Electric publishing and collaborative writing代寫
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Zhao, J. L., & Resh, V. H. (2001). Internet publishing and transformation of knowledge processes. Communications of the ACM, 44(12), 103-109.